NESA uses the KUG gasification technology. KUG uses a multistage bi-directional gasification reaction, kinetically controlled on a catalytic carbon bed. This approach improves the heat transfer, beyond other pyrolysis technologies, by indirect heating using the carrier effect. The bi-directional flow of materials ensures complete gasification.
KUG has tested several hundred feed stocks. This has enabled the company to develop critical data related to system speed and temperature per feed stock type. The development of the process software has been a critical part of the system and benefitted from the many hundreds of test feedstock.
Feedstock can be in the form of municipal and industrial waste, biomass, plastics and other combustible materials. As the feedstock is placed into the gasifier, it is indirectly heated in an oxygen free environment using the system’s own produced syngas to maintain a reactor temperature of approximately 800C. The patented gasifier includes three cascading internal reactors, scrubbers, and a tar/oil cracker, which eliminates some of the maintenance issues connected with other pyrolysis designs.
Sustaining the gasification reaction in the combustion chamber consumes approx. 18-22% of the syngas created, enabling a strongly positive mass energy balance, and nearly 80% of the syngas output to be used by the gas powered generator.
Sustaining gasification in an oxygen free environment changes the output syngas chemistry and reduces significant amounts of toxins produced associated with using other pyrolysis designs. The KUG technology has eliminated most of those toxins through its design. The syngas produced can be fed directly into several commercially available gas-powered electricity generators, with almost no additional modification of the generator required, and maintaining the original manufacturers warranty on the generator.
Biproducts from the process include other commercial revenue streams from carbon black, coke, charcoal, and char. The output bi-product and volume will vary depending on the feedstock utilized, i.e. biomass produces different bi-products than tyre/plastics waste.
The carbon balance and energy outputs of the technology are more strongly positive contributors, compared to other pyrolysis techniques, creating a breakthrough in waste to energy (WTE) technologies and their value to society – supporting a low carbon future.
NESA Project Components
- Pre-sorted MSW shredded to smaller than 50mm size
- Dried to 20% moisture or below
- The shredding and drying can be completed by the waste supplier, or as part of a NESA project design (to be confirmed)
Syngas Generation to electricity (NESA specific project)
- KUG gasifier system (number of modules established to match waste volume input, 40 TPD size scaling)
- Coupled with a combined cycle power plant (CCPP) or the newer combined heat and power (CHP) gas generator. A CCPP generator can have up to a 65% efficiency and the newer CHP generators are up to 90% efficient. The determination of the generator will be project specific and aligned to match the project scale and generation equipment options.
Generation of Renewable Electricity
The following diagrams illustrate the process flow to produce sustainable electricity from waste feedstock.
For all NES Plant projects, a Feasibility Study (FS) needs to be carried out. All energy output provided in herein for the NES Plant project are estimates only. Final energy output quotes are subject to completion of the FS.
Process Flow Diagram
40 tons / day (TPD) of Industrial Plastics Waste
- Approx. 4.75 MW / hour of syngas output
- *Converts to approx. 2.3 MW / hour of electricity output
40 TPD of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), generalised MSW waste.
- Approx. 4.25 MW / hour of syngas output
- *Converts to approx. 2.1 MW / hour of electricity output
40 TPD of Biomass (such as rice crop residue)
- Approx. 3.5 MW / hour of syngas output
- *Converts to approx. 1.7 MW / hour of electricity output
* A conservative 50% efficiency factor from syngas to electricity is used in these calculations.